Post full references to articles here that help contribute to your understanding of digital literacy/ies. Link if possible.


Bavali, M., & Sadighi, F. (2008). Chomsky's universal grammar and halliday's systemic functional linguistics: An appraisal and a compromise. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 12(1), 11-28. Retrieved from direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ920998&site=ehost-live; article explores the transferability of language skills in relation to Chomsky's universal grammar theory.
Buckingham, D. (2006). Defining digital literacy: what do young people need to know about digital media? Digital Kompetanse. (1) 263-276.
The author warns that rather than just adding digital literacy to the curriculum, literacy in general needs to be reconceived.

Eshet, Y. (2012). Thinking in the digital era: A revised model for digital literacy. Issues in Informing Science & Information Technology, 9, 267-276. Retrieved from direct=true&db=a9h&AN=91273710&site=eds-live
Eshef has developed a digital literacy framework including: photo-visual skills, reproduction skills, branching skills, reproduction skills, social emotional skills, and real-time skills.

Framework for 21st century learning. (2007). Retrieved from Partnership for 21st Century Learning website,
This website offers a comprehensive framework for 21st century learning, which can be used to define it and design tasks around it.

Gainer, J. (2012). Critical thinking: Foundational for digital literacies and democracy. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(1), 14-17.
Retrieved from
Gainer urges US schools to become more digitally literate and for teachers to become experts in technology.

Galloway, S. (2015). What's missing when empowerment is a purpose for adult literacies education? bourdieu, gee and the problem of accounting for power. Studies in the Education of Adults, 47(1), 49-63. Retrieved from
Galloway undermines Gee’s belief that literacy skills can empower adults.

Gee, J. P. (2006). What is literacy? In H. Luria, D. M. Seymour, T. Smoke, H. (. Luria, D. M. (. Seymour & T. (. Smoke (Eds.), (pp. 257-264). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Retrieved from 024&site=ehost-live
Gee defines literacy as discourse. Discourse with a big D is how the ways we are literate define us in the world and little discourse are the conversations embedded in this way of being identified.

Gilster, P. (1997). Digital literacy. NY: Wiley.
Glister is a forerunner and among the first to define digital literacy.

Gura, Mark. (2014). Teaching literacy in the digital age. Virgina: ITSE.
This is a useful tool that offers teachers concrete digital literacy lessons that are aligned to CCS.

Hobbs, R. (2010). Digital and media literacy: A plan of action. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.
Give concrete steps educators can take to build digital literacy in a community.

Hicks, T., & Turner, K. H. (2013). No longer a luxury: Digital literacy can't wait. English Journal, 102(6), 58-65.
Retrieved from
Hicks and Turner list activities that do and do not spur digital literacy in the classroom.

Jenkins, Henry, et. al. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: media education for the 21st century. Chicago: MacArthur Foundation.
Jenkins emphasizes the importance of textual literacy--reading and writing--in digital literacy.

Kajder,S. (2010). Adolescents and digital literacies. Urbana, IL: NCTE.
Kajder supports listening to students to hear and understand their learning needs/skill set in relation to digital literacy.

Lankshear, C. & Knobel M. (Eds.). (2008). Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices. New York: Peter Lang.
Lankshear and Knobel argue for a sociocultural approach to digital literacies. A diversity of authors discuss in this book their perspectives on digital literacy/ies and how it overlaps with other literacies, including ICT/computer literacy, information literacy, media literacy, visual literacy, communication, literacy, and so on.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9 (5).
Prensky uses the terms "digital native" and "digital immigrant" and focuses on issues concerning a socio-economic digital divide.

Rheingold, H. (2012). Stewards of digital literacies. Knowledge Quest, 41(1), 52-55. Retrieved from:

Smith, E. E. (2012). The Digital Native Debate in Higher Education: A Comparative Analysis of Recent Literature. Canadian Journal Of Learning & Technology, 38(3), 1-18.
UNESCO Education Sector. (2004). The plurality of literacy and its implications for policies and programmes. United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from
UNESCO defines literacy beyond reading and writing and into realms of culture, social practices, citizenship, etc.

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